三泰虎

哪些國家曾經一度弱小但現在十分強大

What countries used to be weak but are now powerful?

哪些國家曾經一度弱小但現在十分強大?

以下是Quora讀者的評論:

Muhammad Ackakzai, studied at Columbia University

China

PRC of China was founded in 1949. Two years after my father’s country of Pakistan which was founded in 1947.

Pakistan not only had more assets than the Chinese state, which had only recently thrown off opium epidemics and civil war, but a national railway system left by the British.

Today China is poised to take over the Global stage, already has economically and seems to do so politically.

No other nation has pushed double digit growth like China has. A strong regional military to boot, Shenzen is the world’s hardware equivalent of Silicon Valley, and when it comes to super computers and AI they are doing things that seriously challenge anyone.

What makes China most powerful in my eye is how they turned the world order . You don’t have to be a democracy to be successful, there are alternative ways of governing

中國

中華人民共和國成立于1949年。兩年后,我父親的祖國巴基斯坦成立于1947年。

巴基斯坦不僅擁有比中國更多的資產,而且還有英國留下的國家鐵路系統。

如今,中國已準備好登上全球舞臺,在經濟上如此,在政治上似乎也是如此。

沒有其他國家能像中國那樣推動兩位數的增長。此外,深圳在硬件方面的實力相當于硅谷,而在超級計算機和人工智能方面,中國的成就正挑戰著所有國家。

在我看來,中國之所以強大,是因為他們改變了世界秩序。你不是一定要成為皿煮國家才能成功,還有其他的治理方式。

 

Nguyen Ba Giap, works at Eart

I can only say Singapore and partly China after the opium war.

Singapore is an island that has mostly fishing for its economy, under Le Kuan Yew turned out to be ASEAN tiger (or is it tigerfish?).  Most of them are pro US. Countries that don't pro US should be in the list, not others after ww2.

我只能說鴉片戰爭后的新加坡以及某種意義上的中國。

新加坡曾是一個以漁業為主要經濟來源的島國,在李光耀的領導下,它變成了東盟之虎。他們大多數是親美的。不支持美國的國家應該被列入名單,而不是二戰后的其他國家。

 

Mathew Arun, Financial Analyst at The Bank of New York Mellon

Qatar.

The Richest country in the World.

卡塔爾。

世界上最富有的國家。

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Doha,Capital of Qatar in 1950.

1950年,卡塔爾首都多哈。

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Doha in 2019.

From an empty desert,Qatar rose to become the richest country in the world in just over 50 years.Thanks to its vast Oil and Gas reserves.

2019年的多哈。

卡塔爾從一個不毛之地的沙漠崛起為世界上最富有的國家,僅用了50多年的時間。這得益于其豐富的石油和天然氣儲備。

 

Kevin Connors

One of the World’s wealthiest countries today used to be one of the poorest.

1.This country was oppressed by a foreign colonial ruler.

2.This country was devastated by war, a war that nearly destroyed the country.

3.This country has had two different military coupes in the last 60 years

4.This country just hosted the Olympics for the 2nd time.

What country am I talking about?

今天世界上最富有的國家之一曾經是最貧窮的國家之一。

1.這個國家受外國殖民統治者的壓迫。

2.這個國家被戰爭摧毀過,這場戰爭幾乎摧毀了這個國家。

3.在過去的60年里,這個國家經歷了兩次不同的軍事政變

4.這個國家剛剛舉辦了第二次奧運會。

我說的是哪個國家?

People used to greet each other by asking, “Have you eaten today?”

過去人們相互問候時總是問:“你今天吃了嗎?”

I’m talking about South Korea. This was what the country used to look like after the Korean War. The life expectancy was just over 50 years old. Major cities were completely destroyed, and people struggled to feed their families.

In the decades after the war South Korea’s economy skyrocketed, during a period which is often referred to as the “Miracle on the Han.”

Now South Korea is one of the richest countries in the world, with 11th largest economy by nominal GDP. Seoul is one of the biggest and prosperous cities in the world.

我說的是韓國。這是戰爭后韓國的國家面貌。人民平均壽命只有50多歲。主要城市被完全摧毀,人們勉強度日、養家糊口。

戰后的幾十年間,韓國經濟飛速發展,這段時期被稱為“漢江奇跡”。

如今,韓國是世界上最富有的國家之一,其名義國內生產總值(GDP)排在第11位。首爾是世界上最大、最繁華的城市之一。

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Seoul has the 4th largest metropolitan economy in the world behind Tokyo, New York, and LA.

South Korea is now one of the most technologically advanced countries in the world. Samsung, LG, Hyundai, and Kia are all extremely successful Korean companies. Korea has some of the fastest and most efficient train and metro systems in the world.

KTX, Korea’s modern trains system, travels at speeds 305km/h or 190mph!

I’m from America, but I currently live in South Korea, and in many ways I feel like Korea is more advanced than the richest country in the world.

Korea ranks above the US in life expectancy, and education, and has far cheaper health care. South Korea has the fastest internet speeds in the world, and the Seoul subway system is one of the most efficient in the world. It makes Washington DC’s subway system look like a bad joke.

Korea’s rapid economic growth helped transform it from one of the world’s poorest countries to the economic powerhouse that it is today.

首爾是僅次于東京、紐約和洛杉磯的世界第四大都市經濟體。

韓國現在是世界上技術最先進的國家之一。三星、LG、現代和起亞都是非常成功的韓國公司。韓國擁有世界上最快、最高效的火車和地鐵系統。

KTX是韓國的現代列車系統,運行速度為305公里/小時或190英里/小時!

我來自美國,但我現在住在韓國,在很多方面,我覺得韓國比世界上最富裕的國家更先進。

韓國人的平均壽命和受教育程度都高于美國,醫療保健也比美國便宜得多。韓國擁有世界上最快的網速,而首爾的地鐵系統是世界上最高效的地鐵系統之一。這讓華盛頓特區的地鐵系統看起來像一個糟糕的笑話。

韓國快速的經濟增長幫助它從世界上最貧窮的國家之一轉變為今天的經濟強國。

 譯文來源:三泰虎  http://www.hadlq.tw/49205.html 譯者:Joyceliu

 

Thomas Chilton, travel blogger

Vietnam

This is what Vietnam looked like at the end of the Vietnam War, an event that claimed the lives of 58,000 Americans, and as many as 2 million Vietnamese.

越南

這是越南戰爭結束時的樣子,那場戰爭奪去了5.8萬美國人和多達200萬越南人的生命。

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Shortly after the war ended, Vietnam became a co unist country. And the economy was in ruins. The situation seemed bleak at best.

But in 1986, a major change happened. Vietnam would follow the lead of China and adapt free market reforms

Now Vietnam is well inside the Top 50 for largest economies in the world. Many people weren’t even alive when the Vietnam war happened. A new wave of optimism has set over Vietnam. And the cities, which were once in ruins, now are full of life.

戰爭結束后不久,越南成為一個國家。經濟陷入一片廢墟。形勢看起來最好也只能稱之為慘淡。

但在1986年,一個重大的變化發生了。越南跟隨中國的腳步,調整自由市場改革

如今,越南已躋身世界最大經濟體的前50名。越南戰爭發生的時候,很多人還沒出生。越南出現了一股新的樂觀情緒。那些曾經是廢墟的城市現在充滿了生機。

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Hanoi

In 2013 Vietnam opened up its first Starbucks.

Many other restaurant chains such as McDonald’s operate there too and the economy hasn’t shown any real signs of slowing down.

And the Vietnamese are supposed to be some of the nicest people in the world!

河內

2013年,越南開設了第一家星巴克。

麥當勞等許多其他連鎖餐廳也在中國經營,而中國經濟并沒有顯示出任何真正的放緩跡象。

越南人應該是世界上最善良的人!

 

Christopher Williams, lives in Dover, NH (2010-present)

How about Singapore?

When the country split from Malaysia in 1965, this small city-state was in shambles. Undeveloped, there is almost no natural resources. The country was poor.

That is until Lee Kuan Yew came along.

He took advantage of the country’s geography. The country sits at the Malacca Strait, where at least two-fifths of maritime trade goes through. He heavily encouraged foreign trade and investment, and the go nment was made small, effective, and not corrupt.

This came at a cost. Crime laws are very harsh, and social policies are very restrictive and conservative. Lee Kuan Yew often resorted to authoritarian methods to achieve his country’s financial prosperity.

Nonetheless, Singapore is now very wealthy. The GDP per capita is about $53,000, which is more than five times the GDP per capita of it’s neighbor Malaysia.

新加坡算不算?

1965年,當這個國家從馬來西亞分裂出去時,這個小城邦一片混亂。沒有開發,幾乎沒有自然資源。這個國家很窮。

直到李光耀出現。

他利用了這個國家的地理優勢。該國位于馬六甲海峽,至少五分之二的海上貿易都要經過這里。他大力鼓勵對外貿易和投資,精簡政府,打擊附敗。

新加坡為此付出了代價。刑法非常嚴厲,社會政策非常嚴格和保守。為了實現國家的金融繁榮,李光耀經常采取獨-裁手段。

盡管如此,新加坡現在非常富有。人均GDP約為53000美元,是鄰國馬來西亞人均GDP的5倍多。

 

Michel de Wilde, worked at Edelman (2016-2018)

Cannot think anything but Israel, Saudi Arabia, and china.

Israel was developed from a very unique situation, it was surrounded by hostile enemies and its soil is not incredibly fertile, it’s amazing how they became a tech superpower and overcome all the hardships, while protecting itself from hostile neighbours (but as 2018, it seems the arabs are no longer the top security concerns for Israel?)

Saudi Arabia was a poor country before the oil, and after it got Mecca and Medinah, it become the most powerful country in islamic world as it can leverage its diplomatic position with hajj quota.

China is obviously a premier example of this. The country experienced a 150 years of humilation and decline, it began with the Opium war, and put the country in a half-colonized situation, after that it had civil wars, and invaded by japan, and it had another civil war, and the modern china was quite poor to begin with, and in 1960s, many chinese indonesians did not migrate to China as indonesia was a better place compared to China. Thanks to Deng Xiaoping, China undergone reforms and witnessed an economic miracle that lifted more than 500 million from poverty. But the unique feature of China is that it doesn’t want a superpower responsibility, but only want to have a hegemonic status, especially in international trade.

I want to say my country, Indonesia is a powerful one too, but I don’t think I can say it’s powerful, its land army is powerful ,like very powerful, which is a contradiction because indonesia has a larger territory in ocean, and the marine corps is underfunded. due to the fear of separatism and terrorism, it focuses on the land army instead of marine and airforce.

我腦子里只出現了以色列、沙特阿拉伯和中國。

以色列很特別,它被敵對的敵人包圍,土壤不是非常肥沃。令人驚訝的是他們居然克服所有的困難,成為了科技大國,同時保護自己免受敵對鄰國的威脅(但在2018年,阿拉伯對以色列似乎不再是個安全問題了)

沙特阿拉伯在石油開采之前是一個貧窮的國家,在得到麥加和麥地那之后,它成為了伊斯蘭世界最強大的國家,因為它可以利用朝覲的配額來平衡自己的外交地位。

中國顯然是一個典型的例子。這個國家經歷了始于鴉片戰爭的150年的恥辱和衰落,經歷了國家半殖民化,隨后的內戰,被日本侵略過,然后又遭遇了一場內戰?,F代中國很貧窮,1960年代,許多印尼華人不愿遷移到中國,因為當時印尼比中國更好。多虧了鄧,中國經歷了改革開放,見證了經濟奇跡,使5億多人擺脫了貧困。但中國的獨特之處在于,它并不想要承擔超級大國的責任,只想獲得霸權地位,尤其是在國際貿易中。

我想說我的國家,印度尼西亞也是一個強大的國家,它的陸軍是強大的,非常強大,這是一個矛盾,因為印尼的海上領土更廣袤,而海軍陸戰隊資金不足。由于對分裂主義和恐怖主義的恐懼,軍隊的重點是陸軍,而不是海軍和空軍。

 

Will Jessop, just a guy who reads history.

China as others mentioned had a period of weakness as did most powerful countries.

India was under British rule with no power of it’s own then they got independence and overnight became a major regional power even with partition.

Iran like China had a weak phase in the 19th century and early 20th where it fell under western political influence but has since reasserted itself as a major power of the Middle East.

Even Russia had weak times though mainly before it got unified into a single country

正如其他人所提到的,中國和其他最強大的國家一樣,也有一段積弱期。

印度在英國的統治下,沒有自己的兵力,然后他們獲得了獨立,一夜之間成為了一支主要的地區力量,即使存在分區而治的問題。

和中國一樣,伊朗在19世紀和20世紀初也有過一段軟弱時期,當時它受到了西方的政治影響,但此后又重新確立了自己作為中東大國的地位。

即使是俄羅斯,在統一為一個國家之前也有過一段低迷時期

 

Ilan Chezhian, Proud Indian

I’ll probably stick with India on this one.

在這個問題上,我可能會堅定地說:印度。

We all know India was known for its wealth once and was looted by the so called East India Company’s invasion. India was weak at times by then. After Independence, India’s power and influence grew leap & bounds

我們都知道印度曾經因其財富而聞名,并被所謂的東印度公司的侵略掠奪。那時的印度很虛弱。獨立后,印度的實力和影響力有了飛躍發展。

 

Ernest W. Adams, Game design consultant, author and professor

The United States, China, India, Brazil, Japan, and South Korea all come to mind. Some are powerful economically but not militarily.

美國、中國、印度、巴西、日本和韓國都出現在我的腦海中。有些國家經濟實力強大,但軍事實力不強。

 

Yogesh Purohit, History and Geography Enthusiast

There are wonderful answers to this question.

But there is one country whose name has not been mentioned in any answers yet, so would update the same. The country I am talking about is Israel.

Any thing is weakest when it is born or created.

Since ancient times present day Israel has been existent intermittently. It has been under foreign rule for centuries or one may say eras.

During all these centuries Israel was a place under foreign rule. After end of the first world war newly created League of Nations had thought of creating Jewish national home.

But this also took around 3 decades to become reality. After the end of second world war in 1948 modern day nation ‘Israel’ was created.

這個問題有很好的答案。

但是有一個國家的名字還沒有在任何答案中提及到。我想說的這個國家是以色列。

任何事物在誕生或創造時都是最弱的

自古至今,以色列一直斷斷續續地存在著。它已經被外國統治了幾個世紀,或者說一個時代。

在這幾個世紀里,以色列處于外國統治之下。第一次世界大戰結束后,新成立的國際聯盟曾考慮建立猶太人的國家家園。

但這也花了大約30年才成為現實。1948年第二次世界大戰結束后,現代國家“以色列”終于誕生了。

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